Prick and immune? That’s how vaccines work

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Our immune system has a lot to do, and constantly fights against viruses, bacteria, infections and other diseases. With vaccinations, we grab him under the arms and make a contribution to world health. Yes!

In the case of a vaccination our immune system is exposed to aware of a pathogen. Either live pathogens used as vaccines, which are weakened by special breeding or irradiation (live vaccine) or killed pathogen (Inactivated vaccine) is used.

A little prick with a small dose, enough to put our body on alert.

He doesn’t dither for long and developed Antibodies against the pathogen, antibody, and memory cells. If we come after sometime with the real virus or bacteria in contact, know our body exactly what to do and how he should proceed.

What vaccinations are there?

This Form of immunization is called “active vaccination”. It serves the long-term protection against disease, i.e. prophylaxis. Active immunization is performed, for example, against diphtheria, whooping cough, Tetanus, measles, Mumps, or rubella.

In General, the so-called primary vaccination, several partial vaccinations are for the full structure of protection, is necessary.

Vaccinations will also be of benefit for the common good. Each of the measles-Affected infected an average of 15 other people.

In addition to active vaccination, there is also the “passive immunisation”. This is used when people with a pathogen are in contact, and there is not sufficient vaccine against the disease. This Form of immunization is an emergency measure.

The immune system is then supported by concentrates of antibodies to be injected. These were produced either genetically on the Basis of cell cultures, or they are obtained from the blood of people or animals.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection, but only for a short period of time, for three months.

There is also a combination of both Vaccination process, they are called simultaneous vaccination. If a Patient’s insufficient immune protection, and is suspected to have pathogens of dangerous infectious disease infects, in addition to active vaccination given to passive immunization.

In this case, the active and the passive vaccine is not injected to various parts of the body, so that the passive injection moulded anti-body to reabsorb immediately the antigens of the active protective vaccination.

Why is Vaccination important?

Quite simply, you benefit from vaccination, because they can save your life. A vaccination can protect against infection disease completely or significantly over the course of tempering. Especially in the case of particularly serious or dangerous diseases, such as Tetanus or measles, is important.
Measles, for example, are in the world cases, it is still one of the most common infectious diseases, with Thousands of deaths. Even when measles are among the diseases in children are in danger, not just the most Recent.

The pathogens are transmitted over the air. Infected pass on the germs in the Form of very fine droplets of saliva or mucus. These arise, for example, when coughing or Sneezing, but also when to Speak freely. In addition to this: measles are highly contagious. In average, each Affected infected 15 other people.

And here we come to the community Benefits of vaccination, The more people are vaccinated, the better the epidemics can be prevented. Keywords: Herd Immunity. For this reason, the speech is often of the so-called Coverage. It is located at 95 per cent, it means, have excitation virtually no Chance to spread. Infected persons are then isolated.

So even those can be protected, with no possibility to be vaccinated. For example, in the case of people with severe Defect of the immune system or, in the case of acute, requiring treatment for diseases with high fever.

Can diseases through vaccinations eradicated?

Yes, you can, provided that there is achieved a high vaccination rate. Then, it is possible to individual pathogens to eradicate first, regional and eventually worldwide.

In the case of smallpox this is to have succeeded. The infection killed in the first half of the 20th century. The hundreds of thousands. After a successful vaccination campaign the world health organization (WHO) declared the world in 1979, as smallpox. Since then, the pathogen exist only in two laboratories in Russia and the United States.

Also in the fight against polio, short Polio, the chances are good. Until 1960, the infectious disease was widespread, the polio vaccine was introduced. With success: During 1988 were reported 350,000 cases in over 125 Polio-endemic countries, the decline in cases in 2018 and to 33.

However, the complete Eradication of polio a Sisyphean task. In some countries, the Virus continues stubbornly. Here is a consistent implementation of the vaccination would be necessary.

Vaccination campaign against Impfskepsis: Bill de Blasio, mayor of New York City, calls to Vaccinate against measles

In addition, the WHO target of measles virus by the year 2020 globally. However, the recent outbreak shows that the vaccination rates are still far too low to achieve this goal.

As a measles-free, among other things, Estonia, Finland, Portugal, Slovakia and Slovenia in Europe. Great Britain, Greece, the Czech Republic, and Albania suffered a recent setback and lost the Status. Germany was, however, not to the countries classified as free of measles.

A Virus is considered to be eradicated, if under a Million people, a maximum of one falls ill. But this has not reached Germany yet.

In the first half of 2019, there was a global perspective, even the highest number of reported measles cases since 2006 in the same period. Worldwide in the first seven months of this year were registered approximately 365,000 measles cases, three times as many as in the prior-year period.

Most of the cases, there was in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar and the Ukraine. The Numbers are particularly worrying, because, according to WHO estimates, only less than every tenth measles case in the world is reported. The number of unreported cases could be huge.

While in some regions of the world, often, access to vaccines is the biggest challenge – for example, because of the distance to the Impfstation or an unstable political situation, the spread of measles in Western countries primarily to the increasing Impfskepsis.

How dangerous vaccines are?

In General, vaccinations are well tolerated.

In approximately two to 20 per cent, it comes to so-called local reactions at the injection site. This includes, for example, redness, swelling, or Hyperthermia, include.

At ten percent it comes to General reactions, i.e. to an elevated temperature, flu-like symptoms, gastrointestinal complaints, or lymph node enlargement.

But: “The risk of a Impfkomplikation is much lower than the risk of disease,” – said in the lecture “Vaccination helps”. This was published by the Federal centre for health education (BZgA), the professional Association of child and youth doctors (BVKJ), the German society for paediatric infectiology (DGPI), the Paul – Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) and the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) together.

“Permanent damage after vaccination with the currently recommended vaccines are very cases rare exception,” it States finally.

Nevertheless, your doctor will inform you prior to vaccination about all the possible side effects and risks, and protein to possible Hypersensitivity – around chickens or after acute diseases – ask. In exceptional cases, it may happen that he tells even of a vaccination, or to a later point in time moves.

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Vaccination – protection or risk?

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Vaccination – protection or risk?

And what is the arguments against Vaccination?

The big Problem here is that (vaccination) myths, once they have been set in the world, tenacious hold.

Often false reports about side effects were common, “which, on closer investigation, either not at all or very mild,” says Nobel laureate Harald zur Hausen in the DW-Interview.

Here’s a Prime example: The measles-Mumps-rubella vaccination (MMR) trigger autism, it is called again and again. How it came to this assumption?

The British doctor Andrew Wakefield had published 20 years ago a study in the journal “The Lancet”. Subsequently, vaccination rates dropped against MMR drastically. In 2004, it became known that Wakefield had acted entirely altruistic – he had even applied for a Patent on a measles vaccine. The Lancet withdrew the wrong study 2010. In the meantime, numerous studies refute the connection between MMR and autism, the myth holds it own nonetheless.

Self-zur Hausen and can be hard to understand. A “big scandal”, he mentions the skepticism about vaccinations. “Here, continuous education is necessary. Especially since the Doctors and health authorities are required,” he says.

But the Internet and Social media, opponents will find their Propaganda just as easily be heard.

Anyone who enters the bar for Facebook “Vaccinate” in the search, quickly gets distinct groups and pages: “Vaccinate … no, thank you”, “We don’t vaccinate!- the mothers group”, “disgusting substances to Vaccinate? No, thank you”. With the appropriate Slogans: “IMPFormier You about Pharmageddon! Vaccinate not to use Vaccination protects the Vaccinated hurts – stay healthy!”

As it was, only mistakes to learn from? Not always.

Facebook had already announced in March, to give the so-called Anti-Vaxxern, Impfgegnern, less space. For users in the United States a window directly refers to information of the WHO opens the search Impfinhalten now to the wrong information previously.

The Robert Koch Institute explains with a regularly updated list of the most common objections to the Vaccination. The answers are intended to help the claims file and build a picture of the Impfnutzen.

But myths are not the only Problem. Also, for ideological or religious reasons in some countries there are strong reservations against vaccinations. So vaccination campaigns are considered, for example, as a Western conspiracy or as being incompatible with Religion explained.

The WHO leads the Impfzurückhaltung (“Vaccine hesitancy”) on their list of the greatest global threats to 2019 , together with air pollution, climate change, Ebola and HIV. Against the most, we could make our personal contribution. A little prick is one of them.


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